|Biosynthetic considerations of triscatechol siderophores framed on serine and threonine macrolactone scaffolds.
|Year of Publication
|Reitz ZL, Sandy M, Butler A
|2017 Jul 19
Bacteria often produce siderophores to facilitate iron uptake. One of the most studied siderophores is enterobactin, the macrolactone trimer of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-l-serine, produced by E. coli and many other enteric bacteria. Other siderophores are variants of enterobactin, with structural modifications including expansion of the tri-serine core to a tetra-serine macrolactone, substitution of l-serine with l-threonine, insertion of amino acids (i.e., Gly, l-Ala, d-Lys, d- and l-Arg, l-Orn), catechol glucosylation, and linearization of the tri-serine macrolactone core. In this review we summarize the current understanding of the biosyntheses of these enterobactin variants, placing them in contrast with the well-established biosynthesis of enterobactin.