C-Diazeniumdiolate Graminine in the Siderophore Gramibactin Is Photoreactive and Originates from Arginine

TitleC-Diazeniumdiolate Graminine in the Siderophore Gramibactin Is Photoreactive and Originates from Arginine
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsMakris C, Carmichael JR, Zhou H, Butler A
JournalACS Chem Biol
Date Published2022 Nov 10

Siderophores are synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron acquisition required for growth. Catecholate, hydroxamate, and α-hydroxycarboxylate groups comprise well-established ligands coordinating Fe(III) in siderophores. Recently, a -type diazeniumdiolate ligand in the newly identified amino acid graminine (Gra) was found in the siderophore gramibactin (Gbt) produced by DSM 17151. The N-N bond in the diazeniumdiolate is a distinguishing feature of Gra, yet the origin and reactivity of this -type diazeniumdiolate group has remained elusive until now. Here, we identify l-arginine as the direct precursor to l-Gra through the isotopic labeling of l-Arg, l-ornithine, and l-citrulline. Furthermore, these isotopic labeling studies establish that the N-N bond in Gra must be formed between the and of the guanidinium group in l-Arg. We also show the diazeniumdiolate groups in apo-Gbt are photoreactive, with loss of nitric oxide (NO) and H from each d-Gra yielding / oxime isomers in the photoproduct. With the loss of Gbt's ability to chelate Fe(III) upon exposure to UV light, our results hint at this siderophore playing a larger ecological role. Not only are NO and oximes important in plant biology for communication and defense, but so too are NO-releasing compounds and oximes attractive in medicinal applications.

Alternate JournalACS Chem Biol
PubMed ID36354305